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如何查找平行文本

 2019-08-03 08:45:36
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平行文本是指与原文内容相关的文本。査找平行文本可以从宏观入手,也可以从微观词汇入手。比如这篇文章,讲的是形象设计、服装、造型、色彩、饰品,不妨根据这些关键词的英文image design,clothing /garments, style, color, accessories等,用谷歌搜索。经过搜索你会发现维基百科有个词条,叫fashion design,可以査看。该词条里面有一些词汇可以借鉴。同时,烟台翻译公司词条的内容也提醒我们:本篇文章的image design实际上是指personal image design,再査personal image design,会发现有不少从事个人形象设计的公司用的就是这个说法。比如,在http: //www. personalimagedesign. co. uk/中,就可以发现一些相关表述:

Hi and welcome to my website.

My name is Olga and I’m an image consultant who specializes in visual appearances for men and women of all ages. An image consultant counsels individuals and corporate clients on appearance, behavior and communication skills. As I always say... the way you look is my business!

Colour Analysis and Make-up

Colour analysis shows you how to understand colour, by identifying shades which work in harmony with your own colouring. We can all wear every colour but it's about getting the shades right. Some will make you look well whilst others will drain you, learn which are right for you. 

We will show you the right colours of make-up to suit your skin tone. A session takes around 90 minutes and includes a colour swatch with your colours. Colour is the natural way to bring out the best in you.

Image is a visual communication that determines how others see you. Style is the way in which you dress and reflects your personality. You'll be delighted with the way your colours brighten your eyes, enhance your complexion, and flatter your figure. You'll feel confident about the way you shop. It doesn't have to cost a fortune.

从这些平行文本里面,还可以顺藤摸瓜,找到更多的平行文本。比如,用 image consultant、colour analysis and make-up 等可以继续搜索。如果觉得找到平行文本关联性不大,就换个思路,用别的关键词查找。找不到与整篇文章关联的文本,可以针对具体的段落来查找,比如,找A-shape,H-shape,Y-shape (shape也是通过阅读平行文本得到的启发)可发现:

MyShape breaks body shapes into seven categories: Shape M, Shape Y, Shape S, Shape H, Shape A, Shape P and Shape E.

Once you've figured out which body shape you are, you can then decide to shop on the MyShape site that is full of great fashion at all price points.

运气好的话,平行文本能够解决大多数知识和术语问题。阅读平行文本的另一个好处,是获得相关文本的行文特点,培养语感。但平行文本不会解决所有问题,总会有一些词语在平行文本中査不到,这时就需要针对 词汇做些搜索。比如,可以把英文关键词,如garment, fashion, apparel, glossary, terminology等放在一起,搜索英文术语;也可以用“服装”、“词 汇”、“术语”、“亮片”等结合起来搜索中国人整理的汉英对照词汇;还可把中英文结合起来搜索。比如,用“garment亮片”搜索,会发现“亮片” 的说法是rhinestone或sequin等等。这时不要急于使用rhinestone或sequin, 要在英英词典或英语平行文本中检验这两个词是否正确或常用。经查英英 词典,sequin 的解释是 a small shining disk or spangle used for ornamentation, as on women’s clothing and accessories or on theatrical costumes. Rhinestone 的解释是 Rhinestones are shiny, glass jewels that are used in cheap jewellery and to decorate clothes.从英文解释来看,前者是“片”、后者是“珠”,好 像有区别。用“sequin Wikipedia”搜一下,发现有一篇文章,里面写道:


Sequins are disk-shaped beads used for decorative purposes. They are available in a wide variety of colors and geometrical shapes. Sequins are commonly used on clothing, jewelry, bags and other accessories....

Although coins are still used as sequins in some cultures, modern sequins tend to be made of plastic. They may also be referred to as spangles, paillettes, or diamantes. Paillettes themselves are commonly very large and flat. Sequins may be stitched flat to the fabric, so that they do not move, and are less likely to fall off; or they may be stitched at only one point, so that they dangle and move easily, to catch more light. Some sequins are made with facets, to increase their reflective ability.

从这里的解释可以肯定,使用sequin不会错,而且还有别的说法。有时,在査找单词的时候,会发现意想不到的线索。比如,査“廓形”的说法,发现百度百科有一篇标题为“廓形”的词条,其中提到:


克莉斯汀•迪奥曾在50年代推出一系列字母造型时装,分别用A、H、 Y等英文大写字母来比拟他作品的廓形。

顺藤摸瓜,査到“克莉斯汀•迪奥”的英文说法Christian Dior,再査找这个人的简历,看到:

In the 11 years before his death, Dior dictated European style. Each of his collections had a theme 一 the classic suit, the ballerina skirt and the H, A and Y lines that ruled the early 1950's.


再利用这些关键词去核实:

Figure 4-15. Between 1954 and 1955, Dior introduced his alphabet lines: the H Line, the A line, and the Y Line. The H Line was characterized by the controversial Tudor bodice and dropped waistline of the middy. The triangular A Line of 1955 was a huge success and has remained a constant silhouette of fashion ever since. The Y Line did not translate as easlity into American ready-to- wear versions. Basically it was a slender body with a top-heavy Y look. Some versions were inverted, with a slender top teading to a Y bottom profile.


现在发现,前面推测和查证的A-shape Y-shape等说法并不正宗。到此 为止,我们找到了各种造型的祖宗,可以确信无疑地说:A字造型就是A Line. 百度百科同一篇文章还提醒我们“廓形”、“款式”的区别:

服装廓型所反映的往往是服装总体形象的基本特征,像是从远处所看到的服装形象效果。款式是服装构成的具体组合形式,是服装的细节。


这迫使我们去査找“廓形”、“款式”以及“造型”的准确说法。本篇文章提供了 “廓形”的说法silhouette。词典上给出的“款式”翻译包括 design/pattem/style。拿这些词上网捜索,发现某网站(http://www.dressmakingpattem.net/dressmakingpattem02. php)里面有这样的描述:

When we talk about the style of fashion clothes, it can also refer to the inspired and elegant relation between the requirements of a particular moment in time/space and the designer's expression of it in line, color, silhouette, and material, translated into an appropriate costume.

词典上对line的解释有:

a) the edge or contour of a shape, as in sculpture or architecture, or a mark on a painting,drawing,etc.,defining or suggesting this

b) the sum or type of such contours or marks, characteristic of a style or design 

看了这些解释,觉得line可以表示“线条”,也可以表示“廓形/造型”。

进一步调査看到:

〔服装款式style〕指服装的式样,通常指形状因素,是造型要素中的一种。

〔服装造型modeling〕指由服装造型要素构成的总体服装艺术效果。造型要素的划分,从具体造型分为款式、配色与面料三要素;从抽象造型分为点、线、面、形、体、色、质、光等;从部件分为鞋帽、上衣、下衣、外套、内衣、装饰品等。

〔服装轮廓silhouette〕即服装的逆光剪影效果。它是服装款式造型的第一视觉要素,在服装款式设计时是首先要考虑的因素,其次才是分割线、领型、袖型、口袋型等内部的部件造型。轮廓是服装流行发展中的一个重要因素。(http://www.hxen.com/word/fzfs/2008- 09-26/54478. html)

从这里可以看出:造型是最高层次的概念(因此原文第一小标题就是谈的造型),接下来才是款式和廓形的概念。但其中modeling的说法,通过查验英文文献,发现并不表达“造型”的意思。在时装行业,modeling表 示“做时装模特”。结合上面关于A-Line,H-Line的调査以及翻译练习中“A 字形造型”等说法,我们可以初步认定:line是“造型”的英文表达。

但根据另一个网站(http: //lifestyle, indianetzone. com/fashion/l/basics _fashion一designing, htm) : A silhouette refers to the outer shape of a garment, “廊形”是shape, “外廓形”是silhouette。

不过,从原文的用词来看,“造型”、“廓形”似乎无太大区别。因此, 翻译的时候还是要灵活处理。


从上例可以看出,查找平行文本和调查研究需要花费大量时间,是对译者耐心和责任心的考验,有时需要一点点运气。

査找平行文本,虽然耗费时间,但可以提高质量,从长远来看,还可以提高效率。这次通过调查研究解决了一些问题,下次再遇到的时候就不用花那么大的力气。译员的背景知识和翻译能力,就是这样一点一滴积累 起来的。只有在这样的基础上,才可以提高效率。


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